The wall represents a vertical construction that bounds or subdivides spaces. Wall are usually vertical, or nearly vertical, planar elements, often designed to bear structural loads. A wall is however not required to be load bearing.
NOTE Definition according to ISO 6707-1:
vertical construction usually in masonry or in concrete which bounds or subdivides a construction works and fulfils a load bearing or retaining function.
NOTE There is a representation of walls
for structural analysis provided by a proper subtype of
IfcStructuralMember being part of the
NOTE An arbitrary planar element to which this semantic information is not applicable (is not predominantly vertical), shall be modeled as IfcPlate.
A wall may have openings, such as wall openings, openings used
for windows or doors, or niches and recesses. They are defined by
an IfcOpeningElement attached to the wall using the
inverse relationship HasOpenings pointing to
There are three entities for wall occurrences:
- IfcWallStandardCase used for all occurrences of
walls, that have a non-changing thickness along the wall path and
where the thickness parameter can be fully described by a
material layer set. These walls are always represented
geometrically by an 'Axis' and a 'SweptSolid' shape
representation (or by a 'Clipping' geometry based on
'SweptSolid'), if a 3D geometric representation is assigned. In
addition they have to have a corresponding
- IfcWallElementedCase used for occurrences of walls
which are aggregated from subordinate elements, following
specific decomposition rules expressed by the mandatory use of
- IfcWall used for all other occurrences of wall,
particularly for walls with changing thickness along the wall
path (e.g. polygonal walls), or walls with a non-rectangular
cross sections (e.g. L-shaped retaining walls), and walls having
an extrusion axis that is unequal to the global Z axis of the
project (i.e. non-vertical walls), or walls having only 'Brep',
or 'SurfaceModel' geometry.
HISTORY New entity in IFC1.0
Common Use Definitions
The following concepts are inherited at supertypes:
- IfcRoot: Identity, Revision Control
- IfcElement: Product Placement, Box Geometry, FootPrint Geometry, Body SurfaceOrSolidModel Geometry, Body SurfaceModel Geometry, Body Tessellation Geometry, Body Brep Geometry, Body AdvancedBrep Geometry, Body CSG Geometry, Mapped Geometry
- IfcBuildingElement: Surface 3D Geometry
The Object Typing concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 183.
Table 183 — IfcWall Object Typing
Property Sets for Objects
The Property Sets for Objects concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 184.
Table 184 — IfcWall Property Sets for Objects
The Quantity Sets concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 185.
Table 185 — IfcWall Quantity Sets
Material Layer Set
The Material Layer Set concept applies to this entity.
The material of the IfcWall is defined by
IfcMaterialLayerSet, or as fallback by IfcMaterial, and it is attached either directly or at the IfcWallType.
NOTE It is illegal to assign an IfcMaterialLayerSetUsage to an IfcWall. Only the subtype IfcWallStandardCase supports this concept.
The Path Connectivity concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 186.
|IfcWall||Walls with equal or lower priority are connected at RelatedElement.|
Table 186 — IfcWall Path Connectivity
The Spatial Containment concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 187.
|IfcBuildingStorey||Default spatial container|
|IfcBuilding||Spatial container for the element if it cannot be assigned to a building storey|
|IfcSite||Spatial container for the element in case that it is placed on site (outside of building)|
Table 187 — IfcWall Spatial Containment
The IfcWall, as any subtype of IfcBuildingElement,
may participate alternatively in one of the two different containment relationships:
- the Spatial Containment (defined here), or
- the Element Composition.
Axis 2D Geometry
The Axis 2D Geometry concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 188.
|Axis||Curve2D||IfcBoundedCurve||The wall axis of the wall.|
Table 188 — IfcWall Axis 2D Geometry
NOTE The 'Axis' is not used to locate the
material layer set, only the subtype IfcWallStandardCase
provides this capability.
The Surface Geometry concept applies to this entity.
NOTE The 'Surface' can be used to define a
surfacic model of the building (e.g. for analytical purposes, or
for reduced Level of Detail representation).
Body SweptSolid Geometry
The Body SweptSolid Geometry concept applies to this entity.
The following additional constraints apply to the 'SweptSolid'
NOTE If the wall body can be described by a
vertical extrusion of a polygonal footprint with constant
thickness along the axis (where vertical = into the direction of
the global Z axis), the subtype IfcWallStandardCase should
be used. If the extrusion is not equal to global Z, then the
IfcWall should be used.
Body Clipping Geometry
The Body Clipping Geometry concept applies to this entity.
The Element Voiding concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 189.
The Product Assignment concept applies to this entity as shown in Table 190.
Table 190 — IfcWall Product Assignment
XSD Specification: <xs:element name="IfcWall" type="ifc:IfcWall" substitutionGroup="ifc:IfcBuildingElement" nillable="true"/>
<xs:attribute name="PredefinedType" type="ifc:IfcWallTypeEnum" use="optional"/>
|CorrectPredefinedType|| : ||NOT(EXISTS(PredefinedType)) OR
(PredefinedType <> IfcWallTypeEnum.USERDEFINED) OR
((PredefinedType = IfcWallTypeEnum.USERDEFINED) AND EXISTS (SELF\IfcObject.ObjectType));|
|CorrectTypeAssigned|| : ||(SIZEOF(IsTypedBy) = 0) OR
('IFCSHAREDBLDGELEMENTS.IFCWALLTYPE' IN TYPEOF(SELF\IfcObject.IsTypedBy.RelatingType));|
|PredefinedType|| : ||
Predefined generic type for a wall that is specified in an enumeration. There may be a property set given specifically for the predefined types.
NOTE The PredefinedType shall only be used, if no IfcWallType is assigned, providing its own IfcWallType.PredefinedType.
IFC4 CHANGE The attribute has been added at the end of the entity definition.
|CorrectPredefinedType|| : ||
Either the PredefinedType attribute is unset (e.g. because an IfcWallType is associated), or the inherited attribute ObjectType shall be provided, if the PredefinedType is set to USERDEFINED.
|CorrectTypeAssigned|| : ||
Either there is no wall type object associated, i.e. the IsTypedBy inverse relationship is not provided, or the associated type object has to be of type IfcWallType.
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